How to do market research: the ultimate guide

author_morgan molnar

Morgan Molnar

Learn how to conduct your own market research with survey design, sampling, and analysis best practices from our survey experts.

  1. Intro to market research: Learn what market research is, why it’s important, and the difference between various types of market research so you can choose the best method for your project.
  2. Planning: Use our frameworks to define your business questions and research goals, outline your project scope, and document your plan in a research brief.
  3. Survey design: Get expert tips for how to structure your market research survey, write good questions, and optimize for data quality—plus survey templates and a pre-launch checklist.
  4. Fielding: Read our recommendations for how to reach your ideal survey respondents, determine the right number of people to survey, and time your launch for optimal response rates.
  5. Analysis: Get best practices for preparing your dataset, interpreting and visualizing your results, analyzing trends over time, and understanding statistical significance.
  6. Taking action: Learn how to find the stories in your data, turn insights into strategic business recommendations, and inspire action from your stakeholders.

01 Intro to market research

Everything you need to know before getting started

Market research is essential to every organization.

According to the latest global market research report by ESOMAR, a global community of market researchers, roughly $45 billion is spent on market research annually around the globe. The majority of these resources are spent contracting full-service vendors and agencies that do your market research for you. But what if you could cut out the middleman and do it yourself? Doing your own market research is much cheaper, faster, and not nearly as difficult as you might think, as long as you know what you’re doing.

In this guide, you’ll learn everything you need to know to run your own market research programs and get insights to help everyone at your company make business decisions—without costly middlemen.

What is market research?

Market research is the process of collecting information on consumers’ behaviors and preferences, category trends, and/or competitive intelligence. Market research is typically conducted by organizations to inform product development and go-to-market strategy to ultimately drive business growth.

Market research can help companies answer questions like:

  • How large is the market opportunity for my product/service?
  • How does my brand stack up against the competition?
  • Which demographics are most likely to buy my product/service?
  • Which advertising campaign will resonate best with my target market?

Why is market research important?

Sure, business decisions can be made based on gut instincts alone, but doing so comes with high risk. After all, not all of us can be brilliant visionaries like Steve Jobs, who famously said, “It isn’t the consumers’ job to know what they want.” We beg to differ. Market research provides the necessary data-backed evidence to help you make those decisions with confidence. Here’s why market research is so important:

  • Market research steers your business strategy. When it comes to deciding on the company direction, heavy investment (dollars or personnel) is on the line. Market research is the essential validation that assures you that you can move forward or the warning bell that signals you need to go in a different marketing or product direction.
  • Market research helps you avoid costly mistakes. According to Harvard Business School professor Clay Christensen, 95% of new product launches fail. And launching a new product costs serious money. If you’re launching a new product, market research can give you the data you need to ensure your product is in the winning 5%.
95% of new product launches fail
  • Market research builds credibility. Whether you’re trying to create persuasive marketing collateral, become a thought leader in your industry, or impress your C-Suite, market research arms you with the facts to back up your arguments and claims.
  • Market research shows you where to go next. We’ve all heard the phrase “innovate or die.” If your business isn’t adapting to market trends and evolving consumer needs, you’ll likely get left in the dust by your competitors. Market research can diagnose when your brand is starting to get stagnant, help you know which new products/campaigns to launch, and guide you on which markets to enter next.

Types of market research

Market research is a broad term that encompasses several different types of information gathering. It can mean different things to different people and be viewed through a number of different lenses. In order to give you a comprehensive understanding of it, we’ll walk through each of common types of market research, their pros and cons, and how they’re most commonly used. We’ll talk about the differences between:

  • Primary research versus secondary research
  • Quantitative research versus qualitative research
  • DIY market research versus full-service market research

Primary research versus secondary research

Fundamentally, market research can be broken down into two major categories: primary research and secondary research.

  • Primary research is when you collect new information for the first time. Primary research can take the form of either qualitative or quantitative research (more to come on that), but the main distinguishing factor is that the research hasn’t been conducted before.
  • Secondary research is the gathering, consolidation, and summarization of data and research that already exists. For example, if you were to go digging into the US Census for population stats, you would be doing secondary research.

For the purpose of this guide, we will be focusing on primary research. Once you’re done reading, you’ll be a pro at conducting your own primary market research.

Quantitative research versus qualitative research

Quantitative and qualitative research can be done individually or in combination to get broader and deeper insights.

  • Quantitative research is the process of gathering structured, numerical data and using statistical analysis (anything from simple averages to predictive analytics) to make sense of it. Quantitative research can be done at scale and with a much larger sample sizes, because numerical results are easy to aggregate and summarize.
  • Qualitative research typically dives into a particular topic to understand the subjects’ experiences, thoughts, and opinions in detail. Qualitative research is the process of exploring and collecting unstructured information—like text, images, audio, and video—and summarizing the findings into themes. Because of this, qualitative research is done with a smaller sample size—usually anywhere from 5 to 20 research subjects.

The main differences between quantitative and qualitative research are summarized below:


Quantitative researchQualitative research
Research design:
-Descriptive/confirmatory
-Large sample size
Research design:
-Exploratory
-Smaller sample sizes
Data/analysis:
-Structured data
-Aggregates and averages
-Presented in numbers
Data/analysis:
-Unstructured data
-In-depth details
-Presented in themes
Pros:
-Faster and easier to analyze results with spreadsheets and statistical software
-Larger sample sizes mean the results are more likely to be statistically significant
Pros:
-Deep dive into the “how” and “why”
-Exploratory research design provides the opportunity to capture concepts or ideas you hadn’t thought of before
Cons:
-Less detail around “how” and “why”
-Structured research design means it’s possible the research isn’t capturing all possible concepts or ideas
Cons:
-Time consuming and difficult to analyze the findings
-Smaller sample sizes mean the results are less likely to be statistically significant

Quantitative research examples

  • Surveys, especially market research surveys, can be used to collect feedback, perceptions, and opinions from a sample of your target market. Survey data is most often quantitative (e.g.: 90% of people wouldn’t feel safe as a passenger in a self-driving car), but can also be qualitative if open-ended questions are used.
  • In-market experiments involve launching a product/campaign/website/etc. in a single geographic or demographic market (the test group) and measuring the business impact compared to a similar market that wasn’t exposed to the launch (the control group). In-market experiments are great for testing things like digital ad effectiveness or whether a product extension will win market share from a competitor instead of cannibalizing your existing offerings.
  • Implicit data collection is always-on, passive data gathering of actions or transactions. Examples of this could be capturing barcode scanning data at a store checkout to know what items were purchased at what price, or measuring website traffic, or mobile location tracking. Implicit data collection differs from explicit data collection where the information is directly provided as part of the research study (e.g.: in a survey).

Qualitative research examples

  • In-depth Interviews (IDIs) are typically conducted one-on-one and go deep into a particular topic. Qualitative interviews can be in-person, over the phone, or online. Interviews are great for exploring perspectives and feelings on a topic in participants’ own words.
  • Focus groups gather a small group of people together (typically in-person) to discuss a topic. Focus groups are ideal for getting feedback when physical interaction with a product concept is necessary (e.g.: when testing new flavors or scents, or watching a screening of a TV show pilot).
  • Observational research is when the researcher simply observes subjects going about their normal routine and documents what they see. For example, researchers could observe a shopper’s path through a retail or grocery store to better understand how to lay out the store experience. The “results” in the case of observational research usually come in the form of written researcher notes.
  • Yes, even surveys. It might seem like surveys are meant for quantitative research, but they can also be used for qualitative research. Open-ended survey questions provide a flexible way for survey takers to provide more detail around their answers, making the results qualitative in nature.

DIY market research versus full-service market research

When your organization needs to conduct market research, there are a couple ways to go about it. The two main approaches are do-it-yourself (DIY) market research or to use a full-service market research firm.

  • DIY market research is when organizations do their own market research using self-service tools like survey platforms and online survey panels like SurveyMonkey Audience. Typically, DIY market research is done opportunistically by the team that needs the results, but the research could also be done by a centralized internal insights team using similar tools. DIY market research can be just as robust and reliable as full-service market research. While it but does require some expertise this ultimate guide will teach you everything you need to know to run your own successful DIY market research project.
  • Full-service market research is when an organization pays a vendor to conduct market research for them. The vendor could be a market research firm, marketing agency, or consulting firm. Things like research design, data collection, analysis, and business recommendations can all be handled by a vendor, but it can take time and is more expensive.

Here is a summary of the pros and cons of DIY market research and full-service market research for you to consider when deciding how you’ll conduct your research:

DIY market researchFull-service market research
Pros:
-Instant results
-Cost-effective
-Complete control over research design and timeline
Pros:
-All of the work is done for you by the vendor
-No expertise needed

Cons:
-Requires work internally to set up the research and analyze results

Cons:
-Takes a long time
-Expensive
-Requires vendor on-boarding to ensure relevant recommendations

Now that you’re well versed in the different types of market research, it’s time to get you off and running! In this guide, you’ll learn everything you need to know to conduct your own market research from start to finish—from creating a project plan to designing your survey to collecting representative responses to turning results into action.

The best practices in this guide span any market research use case, but we’ll focus on the three example surveys you see below: consumer behavior, ad testing, and brand tracking. By the time you’ve finished reading this guide, you’ll be a pro at DIY market research!

Consumer Behavior

A survey measuring millennials’ usage of video streaming services.

View example

Ad Testing

A survey assessing print ad concepts for a fictional dog food company.

View example

Brand Tracking

A survey tracking awareness and perception of sparkling water brands.

View example

02 Planning

How to create a market research plan

Before you get knee-deep in survey design and data collection, it’s important to have a clear plan in place for your market research. Knowing when you need market research, understanding what type of market research is important to your business, aligning with your stakeholders, and scoping out your project ahead of time will ensure you stay on track and deliver actionable results.

When to do market research

So, when’s the best time to do market research? Trick question! Continuously. No matter where you work, you can always tap into the market’s opinions and preferences to be better at your job.

Let’s look at this in the context of a product’s lifecycle:

How market research fits into the product life cycle

How market research fits into the product life cycle
  • Development: When you’re planning to launch a new product, you need to fundamentally understand the market opportunity, consumers’ needs and preferences, how they buy, what competitors are already doing, and what general trends are showing up in the industry. When you get to product ideation, deciding early things like the product name and logo can also benefit from consumer feedback.
  • Introduction: When you get closer to product launch, testing various iterations of your product to make sure you’ve nailed product-market fit is critical. Beyond the product itself, you’ll want to test things like packaging, claims, website messaging, and other early marketing materials. When you get your first customers, they’ll be a gold mine for early-stage feedback so you can iterate.
  • Growth: As you start to grow your product sales and build your brand, market and customer feedback becomes even more important. In the growth stage when customer acquisition is extremely important, doing market research allows you to test and optimize your messaging, keep tabs on your brand perception, and identify ways to improve your product so you keep growing your customer base.
  • Maturity: Product maturity is not a time to rest on your laurels. Keeping a continuous pulse on your brand, competitors, and industry trends when your product is in the mature stage can help you decide where to go next. Maybe it’s time to expand to a new market, refresh your brand, or develop a product line extension.
  • Decline / Extension: When your product sales start to drop, it’s critical to diagnose why. Is it merely seasonality? A new product in the category that’s stealing market share? Market research can help you detect declines early. And if you’re looking to expand your product offerings to offset the decline, the need for market research reappears as your re-enter the development stage.

If the answer to “when should I do market research” is “all the time,” how do companies manage and plan for that? One way is budgeting for large annual studies—like brand tracking and competitive research every year or more frequently. In addition to that, more and more companies have taken a page from the world’s most innovative companies to make their market research more agile.

What is agile market research?

Agile market research is an approach to conducting market research in which projects are structured in small, frequent “sprints” so you can adapt to challenges on the fly.

Rooted in the Agile Methodology first introduced in the software development space, agile market research takes on a lot of the same characteristics you’d find in startup culture. Agile market research goes beyond just being faster. As SurveyMonkey president Tom Hale described in his piece in Quirk’s, “The era of doing a couple of large, set-in-stone projects a year is gone. Today your research goals adapt to the ever-changing needs of the business, which translates into frequent projects that validate your strategy along the way.”


“The era of doing a couple of large, set-in-stone projects a year is gone. Today your research goals adapt to the ever-changing needs of the business, which translates into frequent projects that validate your strategy along the way.”


The movement towards agile market research

Agile market research isn’t a brand new concept, but it has spread like wildfire. Even a couple years ago, 78% of researchers were planning to adopt agile market research methodologies, according to a study by GutCheck. With DIY research tools like SurveyMonkey and SurveyMonkey Audience, more people and teams within an organization are able to do their own market research without having to rely on centralized insights teams or full-service agencies, and this allows them to always have the data they need to make decisions faster.

Below is SurveyMonkey’s agile market research framework. It visualizes a cyclical  approach to exploring, testing, validating, and optimizing strategies—whether they’re ideas, concepts,  campaigns, you name it—all the while continuously tracking progress. It takes what otherwise might be a long, drawn out research timeline and breaks it into sprints of smaller, more manageable projects. The beauty of this framework is its versatility. It shows you how agile market research can help you for nearly any challenge or project you might encounter at your job.

Agile market research framework: explore, test, validate, optimize, and track

Each research phase fundamentally asks the following questions:

  • Explore: What are the needs of the market?
  • Test: Which idea does my market prefer?
  • Validate: How successful will my idea be?
  • Optimize: Which improvements will make my idea even better?
  • Track: How am I doing?

The key takeaway here is that with the right tools and processes, research can be an ongoing activity that any team in your organization can own. Now, that doesn’t mean that you should just start conducting research willy-nilly. Having a clear direction and plan will make frequent research that much more strategic and actionable. The first step is defining the business question your research aims to answer.

Defining the business question and research goal

Starting a market research project from scratch can feel intimidating. If you break it into chunks and have a clear vision of what you’re looking for, things become easier. In order to focus your research, you should lay out the business question and research goals you’re looking to achieve.

The business question is a short summary of the problem you’re solving for and the context of how it fits in to your business. We’re not talking about survey questions here—business questions are high-level goals or challenges that tie directly to your business objectives that can help you make better decisions. A business question might involve:

  • Knowledge gaps: things you don’t know about your industry, competitors, or target buyers
  • Business phenomena: trends you’re seeing in the business (e.g.: dips in sales or increases in churn) that need explaining
  • Predictions: you might just be looking to be one step ahead of your competitors
  • And more…

The research goal is an outline of the specific facts or metrics you hope to learn with your research. In other words, your research goals are what helps you answer your business question, you can map research goals to that question. Writing strong, relevant research goals is important because they will later  translate to specific survey questions later on.


A good rule of thumb is to have no more than 3 research goals so you ensure your survey is focused and not overwhelming for respondents.

To bring this to life, here are some hypothetical business questions and research goals:

Business questionResearch goals
Consumer behavior:
We’re considering investing in a couple video streaming services companies, and we need to understand the existing landscape and perceptions so we invest wisely.



1. Learn what tech brands and apps are most popular among millenials

2. Gather proof points around quantity/satisfaction of apps used

3. Understand millennials’ usage and attitudes towards streaming services
Ad testing:
We’re very close to going to market with our new dog food, and our designers have come up with several great designs for print ads. How do we choose which design to go with?
1. Compare consumer appeal and preference for each ad design

2. Identify which design consumers would be willing to pay more for

3. Assess any differences by consumer demographics
Brand tracking:
We’re an established brand in the sparkling water category, but a lot of new brands have launched in the last year. What does that mean for us?
1. Measure brand awareness for all major brands in the category

2. Assess each brand’s perception and associations

3. Understand brand adoption for our brand and the new entrants


As you go about connecting your business question to your research goals, you should begin thinking about summarizing how your results will be used, what format they’ll be delivered in (a summary in a spreadsheet? a formal presentation to executives?), and who the key stakeholders are for the research (typically those responsible for business decisions). All of this information will be helpful later when you create a brief to help you summarize (or defend) your market research project.

Outlining your project scope

When your objectives are clear, the next step is to outline your project scope. This includes your project budget, who you’ll be surveying and how, and the estimated project timeline.

Know your budget

Okay, so this is a bit of a chicken-or-the-egg scenario. Should the project scope determine the budget or vice versa? The reality is that most teams are given a set budget for the year and need to figure out how to work within it. Earlier in the year (or planning cycle), you might have more unallocated funds to work with, but as the year goes on, things might get tighter. Where you stand with budget will likely determine how you move forward.

Things to consider when figuring out your budget:

  • What is the estimated price of the sample? DIY solutions like SurveyMonkey Audience let you calculate the cost of your responses before creating a survey. Things that affect sample price are: sample size, targeting criteria, and the number of people you expect to qualify for your survey.
  • Will you need any services, or will your team have capacity to do things like survey translations for international studies and data analysis?
  • How frequently will you be running the study? Is this a one-off project or a recurring tracking study? The number of waves will affect your project cost.
  • If you’re using a full-service research vendor, are there any additional agency fees?

Figure out how you’re going to reach your target audience

Knowing who you need to target with your survey and how you plan to do it will have implications for how you resource your project (both dollars and team members working on it). Try to answer the following questions before getting started:

  • Who am I surveying?
  • How many people do I need to survey?
  • Do I already have access to those people?
  • Will I be able to get responses from the people I have access to fast enough?
  • How will I send my survey to these people?
  • Alternatively, would an online panel have the people I need to reach?

Not to worry, we’ll go into much more depth on how to answer these questions in the fielding section of this guide.

Create a project timeline

Understanding how long each step in a market research project takes will ensure you start the work early enough to have actionable insights before you need to make your decisions. Here’s the timeline you can expect for a large scale DIY market research project.

Market research timeline

market research project timeline

Timing considerations for each step:

  • Planning: Depending on the number of stakeholders for your project, it could take a couple meetings to make sure  everyone agrees on the goals of the research.
  • Survey design: This step could be pretty quick if you start with one of our market research survey templates, but might take longer if each stakeholder wants to have input into the survey design.
  • Fielding: The time it takes to collect all of your responses will depend on your target (a broader audience will take less time to field than a more specific audience) and your methodology (an online panel like SurveyMonkey Audience could take as little as a couple hours, but sending a survey via social media or email could take longer as it requires reminders).
  • Analysis: You’ll want to consider how exhaustive you think your analysis will be. If you’re looking to describe the opinions or perceptions of people in your sample, it might mean a few days to create simple charts and graphs, but if you need to run statistical analyses or models, this portion might take longer.
  • Roadshow: Once you have your insights consolidated, showing them to your stakeholders could just be a meeting or two (even an email if you’re moving quickly), or it might require longer discussions if closely tied to a large strategic initiative.
  • Action: The most important step! While there might be individual decision points, it’s tough to assign a timeframe for the action step as it should be ongoing once your results have been shared.

Now, these are timeline estimates for a larger-scale research project with several stakeholders. The beauty of agile market research is that it’s frequent and built into your business process. You might follow the above timeline for the first run, but future projects could be done on the fly in a much more accelerated timeline (perhaps even just days from start to finish).

Documenting your plan in a research brief

Once you’ve worked through everything above, you should document everything in a research brief. Research briefs are a great way to keep everything in one place. A well-written research brief will be able to tell anyone who’s interested exactly what you will be studying (and what you won’t be) to make sure everyone is on the same page. And if anyone wants to suggest something that’s not part of your experiment, your research brief will help you show why you need to stick to the plan.

Here’s an example research brief you can follow:

And with your plan all set, you’re ready to start drafting your survey!

03 Survey design

How to design a successful market research survey

In this section, we’ll teach you everything you need to know about writing an effective market research survey. We’ll start with how to structure your survey, discuss question writing tips, tell you ways to optimize your survey for data quality, provide market research survey templates to get you started, and even share a pre-launch checklist. Let’s get to it!

To start, take a look at the below diagram. It breaks down the anatomy of a good market research survey. We’ll dive into all of these recommendations in more detail in this chapter.

Anatomy of a good market research survey:

market research design

How to structure your market research survey

Before you begin writing survey questions, it’s important to know how to structure a good market research survey. While there isn’t a perfect formula, there are several fundamental things to take note of before you get writing:

  • Go from general to specific. Treat your survey like a conversation with someone you just met. You wouldn’t start a conversation by asking what they think of the packaging on their favorite brand of pet food. You’d warm them up by asking first if they had a dog, what kind it was, what kind of dog food they buy, etc. That’s what we mean by going from general to specific. Start your survey with higher level questions about the category you’re interested in, and then get into specific preferences and opinions.
  • Start simple. Open-ended questions require respondents to think harder. Our research shows that seeing an open-ended question at the very beginning of a survey may make some respondents drop out, lowering your survey’s completion rate. The same goes for lengthy intros and a large matrix/rating scale questions. An easy fix? Begin your survey with a simple multiple choice question to draw respondents into it.

Average completion rate by type of opening question

average survey completion rate by type of opening question
  • Keep screening questions at the beginning. If you are trying to target a specific group of people using screening questions in your survey, it’s best to use them in the beginning of your survey. That way, you’ll disqualify respondents who aren’t relevant for your survey before they get too far.
  • Include your demographic questions last. Things like age and zip code are easy and fast to answer, but there are demographic questions like household income and sexual orientation that are more sensitive. To avoid drops in response rate, build up some trust and engagement with the respondent first (with your survey) before asking them personal demographic questions. Also, this allows you to ask the questions that answer your research goals first, while respondents are still fresh (even a fatigued respondent will still answer their age correctly).
    • Note: if you’re using a demographic question as a screener, it’s still best to include it at the beginning of the survey.
  • Limit the use of page breaks. Page breaks mean extra clicks for your respondents and too many could annoy them. However, there are times when page breaks are necessary (e.g.: when using skip logic or after your screening questions). You can also use page breaks to separate different themes of your survey. In general, you can think about a Goldilocks rule for page breaks: one question per page is way too few; all questions on one page is way too many; 5-10 questions per page is juuuuust right.
  • Hide the “previous” button. In market research surveys, which so often evaluate things like first impressions or awareness of brands, it’s important that people can’t go back and change their first answers.  In the brand awareness survey example, you might be looking for the first brands that come to the respondents’ mind. If on the next page of the survey you have included brand names or imagery, you don’t want that respondent to be able to return back to the awareness question to change their answer. Hiding the “previous” button in your survey can avoid this.
    • Note that this is done automatically when you send your survey using our Audience panel.
  • Know your limitations. Make sure you’re adhering to any structural requirements of the platform or panel you’ll be using. With SurveyMonkey Audience, there is a maximum 50 question limit among a couple other survey design guidelines for ensuring data quality.

Now that we’ve reviewed how to structure your survey,  let’s look at strategies for writing your survey questions in a way that ensures you don’t bias your respondents.

How to write market research survey questions

A lot of things can inadvertently bias your survey respondents—the wording of your question, the sentence structure, how you choose your answer options, and more. Luckily it’s pretty easy to avoid if you adhere to these tips.

1. Follow the golden rules of good survey questions

No matter the question, the golden rules for writing a good survey question are:

  • Mutually exclusive answer options, meaning that there are no overlaps in answer options (e.g. age ranges 18-34 and 34-45 both have 34 in them).
  • Collectively exhaustive answer options, meaning that the answer options cover the full range of possibilities.
bad-mark-line680
Bad question:
How much time do you spend watching TV in a typical week?

• 1-3 hours
• 3-6 hours
• 6-9 hours
• 10-12 hours

This question is bad because the answer options overlap and it doesn’t account for people who watch fewer than 1 hour of TV or more than 12 hours or TV.
good-mark-line680
Good question:
How much time do you spend watching TV in a typical week?

• I don’t watch TV
• 1-3 hours
• 4-6 hours
• 7-9 hours
• 10 hours or more

This question is good because the answer options don’t overlap and it accounts for people who watch any amount of TV.

2. Balance your answer options

Ordinal scale questions like Likert scale questions are extremely common in market research. They typically come in the form of a 5-, or 7-point scale, which means they include 5 or 7  answer options. The key with these types of questions is balancing the number of positive, neutral, and negative answer options—there should be equal parts positive and negative.

bad-mark-line680
Bad question:
How likely are you to purchase this product?

• Extremely likely
• Likely
• Not likely

This question is bad because two out of the three answer options are positive.
good-mark-line680
Good question:
How likely are you to purchase this product?

• Extremely likely
• Very likely
• Somewhat likely
• Not so likely
• Not at all likely

This question is good because it uses 5 answer options that are balanced with 2 positive, 1 neutral, and 2 negative answer options.

Also, avoid agree/disagree questions. Survey scientists have found again and again that they cause desirability bias, the tendency for respondents to agree more often than they normally would. We recommend using Likert Scale questions instead.

If you’re having trouble coming up with the right answer options, SurveyMonkey’s Answer Genius can help by using artificial intelligence to predict the answer options you should use for a given question.

SurveyMonkey Answer Genius
SurveyMonkey Answer Genius
SurveyMonkey Answer Genius
Caption pro tip
Pro tip: Don’t trip up your respondents by switching up the question structure on every question. Whether you use 5-point scales or 7-point scales, go positive to negative or negative to positive, choose one question structure and stick to it.

3. Give your respondents a way out

Make sure every respondent who enters your survey is able to answer the questions in your survey—even if the survey question isn’t relevant to them. Including an “other” or “none of the above” or “never” answer option can help you achieve this.

bad-mark-line680
Bad question:
How often do you watch video using streaming services (like Netflix or